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Design and Technology

‘ What is design? It’s where you stand with a foot in two worlds- the world of technology and the world of people and human purposes- and you try to bring the two together.’ 

Mitchell Kapor

 

Why is Design and Technology (D&T)?

Design and Technology is the study of design, structures, mechanisms, electrical control and a range of materials, including food. It encourages creativity and encourages children to think about important issues.

https://www.data.org.uk/for-education/primary/

 

Why do we study Design and Technology (D&T)?

Design and technology is a practical and valuable subject. It enables children and young people to actively contribute to the creativity, culture, wealth and well-being of themselves, their community and their nation. It teaches how to take risks and so become more resourceful, innovative, enterprising and capable. Students develop a critical understanding of the impact of design and technology on daily life and the wider world. Additionally, it provides excellent opportunities for pupils to develop and apply value judgements of an aesthetic, economic, moral, social, and technical nature, both in their own designing and when evaluating the work of others. It develops children’s skills and knowledge in design, structures, mechanisms, electrical control and a range of materials, including food. It encourages children's creativity and encourages them to think about important issues

 

The National curriculum states the purpose of studying D&T is:

Design and technology is an inspiring, rigorous and practical subject. Using creativity and imagination, pupils design and make products that solve real and relevant problems within a variety of contexts, considering their own and others’ needs, wants and values. They acquire a broad range of subject knowledge and draw on disciplines such as mathematics, science, engineering, computing and art. Pupils learn how to take risks, becoming resourceful, innovative, enterprising and capable citizens. Through the evaluation of past and present design and technology, they develop a critical understanding of its impact on daily life and the wider world. High-quality design and technology education makes an essential contribution to the creativity, culture, wealth and well-being of the nation.

 

Through their study of the Opossum D&T curriculum, we intend that pupils will:

 

1. Develop creativity, innovation, risk taking and resourcefulness

Pupils will develop their creativity and innovation by designing, creating and evaluating a range of products. They will learn to take risks in their designs, justifying their reasons for doing so. They will be able to develop their resourcefulness based on a set of design criteria and consider constraints such as: time, resources and cost.

2. Gain knowledge beyond their experience

Pupils will learn about structures, mechanisms, electrical systems, textiles and a range of materials, including food. They will be curious about how things work, leading to them wanting to find out more. They will learn about inventors, designers, engineers, chefs and manufacturers who have developed ground-breaking products, supporting them to become aspirational about their future careers.

 

3. Design, create and evaluate a range of products

Pupils will develop an enhanced ability to design, create and evaluate a range of products (their own and others). They will be able to produce designs based on their own criteria, taking into account the needs of the user and a variety of constraints such as time, resources and cost. They will accurately use a variety of materials, components and techniques for an intended purpose and be able to evaluate their effectiveness and impact.

 

4. Develop a critical understanding of design and technology and be able to access its impact on daily life

Pupils will learn how to critically evaluate theirs and others' work, using a set of criteria. They will be able to discuss the impact of the materials and techniques used and offer improvements based on their evaluations. Pupils will make changes based on their prior evaluations, resulting in enhanced designs and creations. 

 

5. Acquire technical vocabulary

Pupils will develop technical vocabulary and be able to use it in the correct contexts. This will enable their designs, creations and evaluations to be more coherent. Gaining an understanding of this language enables pupils to follow and interpret instructions, identify tools and materials and speak with common understanding about the works they are creating.

 

6. Develop and enhance problem-solving skills, solving real and relevant problems within a variety of contexts

Many innovative designs and products emerge in response to real problems and challenges faced in everyday life. Pupils will apply their repertoire of learnt skills and techniques to problems and challenges posed in the classroom and design possible solutions. During the creative process, review and evaluation will prompt pupils to identify improvements to create a more effective design. These skills are transferable and valued across all areas of the curriculum.

 

Opossum Values

Through their study of Design and Technology, Opossum values are realised.

 

Being Respectful - demonstrating respect for the viewpoints of others by listening courteously and debating respectfully

 

Being Aspirational – an expectation that pupils are capable of research, discussion, designing, creating and evaluating a range of products for an intended purpose

 

Being Caring –  Considering ways people’s lives could be improved through innovative products and using design and technology skills to develop those ideas.

 

Having Integrity - Seeking truth by considering and critically analysing technical information

 

Being Creative – using creative skills to create new and improved products. Using creativity when evaluating past and present products

 

Being Community Minded – Considering needs in the community and designing/creating products which will have a positive impact on the wider community.

 

Scope and sequence

 

The Opossum D&T curriculum fulfils and exceeds the requirements of the National Curriculum. Pupils receive a D&T curriculum which allows them to exercise their creativity through designing and creating. Pupils are taught to combine their designing and creating skills with knowledge and understanding in order to design and make a product. Skills are taught and practised progressively so that they are developed as pupils move through the school. Evaluation is an integral part of the design process, allowing pupils to adapt and improve their product; this is a key skill which they need throughout their life. D&T allows pupils to apply the knowledge and skills learned in other subjects, particularly Maths, Science and Art. Children’s interests are captured through thematic learning where inter-disciplinary links are made, creating motivation and meaning for their learning. All teaching of D&T follows the design, create and evaluate cycle. Each stage is rooted in technical knowledge, using real life, relevant contexts to give meaning to learning. While creating, pupils are given a choice and a range of tools to choose freely from. Pupils evaluate their own products against a design criteria. Children will learn basic cooking skills within the scope of the curriculum.

 

EYFS

EYFS is the bedrock of the D&T curriculum for KS1. Of the seven areas of learning and development outlined in the EYFS framework the areas which fits best with D&T are: ‘Knowledge and Understanding of the World’ and ‘Expressive Arts and Design’. Pupils learn a whole range of highly transferable skills, values and attributes (including: problem-solving, observation, collaboration, open-mindedness, courage, resilience, curiosity, integrity, and a sense of what is fair and equitable) that combine to allow them to develop the skills and knowledge required for accessing the KS1 D&T curriculum. During the Early Years Foundation Stage, the essential building blocks of children’s design and technology capability are established. There are many opportunities for carrying out D&T-related activities in all areas of learning in the EYFS. Specifically, ‘Designing and Making’ is identified as a strand within ‘Knowledge and Understanding of the World’. By the end of the EYFS, most children are be able to:

  • Construct with a purpose in mind, using a variety of resources
  • Use simple tools and techniques competently and appropriately
  • Build and construct with a wide range of objects, selecting appropriate resources and adapting their work when necessary
  • Select the tools and techniques they need to shape, assemble and join materials they are using

 

Provision in the EYFS is set up to ensure pupils have opportunities on a daily basis to design, create and evaluate a range of products, using both their knowledge and imagination. 

 

KS1

Learning in KS1 builds on the experience drawn upon in EYFS. The cycle of ‘design, create and evaluate’ is formally introduced to pupils. When designing, they communicate their ideas verbally and by using simple drawings, making templates and prototypes. Pupils learn about basic mechanisms such as sliders and levers and wheels and axles. This forms the foundation of more complex mechanisms in KS2. They learn how to make basic freestanding structures and how to join materials together. When evaluating, pupils can make simple judgments and improvements for theirs and others' work. In food and nutrition, pupils learn how to prepare simple fruit and vegetables, without the use of a heat source. Pupils have the opportunity to complete two projects within the same D&T domain, therefore they are able to act upon their evaluation to make improvements within their new designs. 

 

KS2

Learning in KS2 builds on the experience and knowledge gained at KS1. Pupils will begin to develop their own design criteria when designing and creating products. In UKS2, pupils generate innovative ideas, draw on research and make design decisions, which take into account a range of constraints such as, time, resources and cost. Pupils develop their knowledge of mechanisms by using levers and linkages and a range of cams to fit the intended purpose. Mechanical systems are introduced, building upon their knowledge in computing and science, using a range of circuits, switches, programming and control, pulleys and gears. They use a range of sewing stitches to join textiles together for a variety of different purposes. Throughout KS2 they develop their ability to critically evaluate the quality of their design, manufacture and fitness for purpose and their ability to evaluate their ideas and products against their original design specification. In food and nutrition, pupils learn to create a variety of dishes using a range of cooking techniques and with the use of a heat source. They develop their knowledge of how to eat a healthy and varied diet. Pupils have the opportunity to complete two projects within the same D&T domain; therefore they are able to act upon their evaluation to make improvements within their new designs. 

 

Key knowledge, skills and concepts within the D&T curriculum

 

The D&T curriculum has five key strands:

  • Designing: When designing, children need to understand the context they are working in, think about who their products will be for and decide what tasks they will perform. They need opportunities to generate, develop, model and communicate ideas in a variety of ways, including spoken language, drawings, templates, mock-ups, prototypes and pattern pieces.
  • Creating: When creating, children should select from a range of tools and equipment, explaining their choices. They also need opportunities to choose the materials and components they will use, thinking about their working characteristics. They should follow procedures for safety and hygiene and develop a repertoire of practical skills and techniques, working with increasing accuracy.
  • Evaluating: When evaluating, children should make increasingly sophisticated judgements about their own ideas and products against design criteria. They should consider the views of others in order to improve their work. They should also investigate and evaluate existing products using a variety of questioning techniques and, in KS2, learn about important inventors and their inventions.
  • Technical Knowledge: Technical knowledge is the body of knowledge and understanding that is specific to design and technology that needs to be developed and then applied when children are designing, making and evaluating products.
  • Cooking and Nutrition:  Cooking and nutrition provides opportunities for children to learn about where food comes from, how food is grown, reared or caught and the effect of seasonality on the availability of food. They also learn about the principles of healthy eating and how to prepare and cook dishes safely and hygienically using a range of techniques. Cooking and nutrition is taught alongside designing and making within a D&T food project
 

 

Designing:

 

Key Stage 1: Years 1 and 2

LKS2: Years 3 and 4

UKS2: Years 5 and 6

Understanding contexts, users and purposes

Across KS1 pupils will:

  • work confidently within a range of contexts, such as imaginary, story-based, home, school, gardens, playgrounds, local community, industry and the wider environment
  • state what products they are designing and making
  • say whether their products are for themselves or other users
  • describe what their products are for
  • say how their products will work
  • say how they will make their products suitable for their intended users
  • use simple design criteria to help develop their ideas

Across KS2 pupils should:

  • work confidently within a range of contexts, such as the home, school, leisure, culture, enterprise, industry and the wider environment
  • describe the purpose of their products
  • indicate the design features of their products that will appeal to intended users
  • explain how particular parts of their products work
  • gather information about the needs and wants of particular individuals and groups
  • develop their own design criteria and use these to inform their ideas
  • work confidently within a range of contexts, such as the home, school, leisure, culture, enterprise, industry and the wider environment
  • describe the purpose of their products
  • indicate the design features of their products that will appeal to intended users
  • explain how particular parts of their products work
  • carry out research, using surveys, interviews, questionnaires and web-based resources
  • identify the needs, wants, preferences and values of particular individuals and groups
  • develop a simple design specification to guide their thinking

Generating, developing, modelling and communicating ideas

Across KS1 pupils should:

  • generate ideas by drawing on their own experiences
  • use knowledge of existing products to help come up with ideas
  • develop and communicate ideas by talking and drawing
  • model ideas by exploring materials, components and construction kits and by making templates and mock- ups
  • use information and communication technology, where appropriate, to develop and communicate their ideas

Across KS2 pupils should:

  • share and clarify ideas through discussion
  • model their ideas using prototypes and pattern pieces
  • use annotated sketches, cross-sectional drawings and exploded diagrams to develop and communicate their ideas
  • use computer-aided design to develop and communicate their ideas
  •  generate realistic ideas, focusing on the needs of the user
  • make design decisions that take account of the availability of resources

Across KS2 pupils should:

  • share and clarify ideas through discussion
  • model their ideas using prototypes and pattern pieces
  • use annotated sketches, cross-sectional drawings and exploded diagrams to develop and communicate their ideas
  • use computer-aided design to develop and communicate their ideas
  •  generate realistic ideas, focusing on the needs of the user
  • make design decisions that take account of the availability of resources
  • generate innovative ideas, drawing on research
  • make design decisions, taking account of constraints such as time, resources and cost

 

Creating:

 

Key Stage 1: Years 1 and 2

LKS2: Years 3 and 4

UKS2: Years 5 and 6

Planning

Across KS1 pupils should:

  • plan by suggesting what to do next
  • select from a range of tools and equipment, explaining their choices
  • select from a range of materials and components according to their characteristics

Across KS2 pupils should:

  • select tools and equipment suitable for the task
  • explain their choice of tools and equipment in relation to the skills and techniques they will be using
  • select materials and components suitable for the task
  • explain their choice of materials and components according to functional properties and aesthetic qualities
  • order the main stages of making

Across KS2 pupils should:

  • select tools and equipment suitable for the task
  • explain their choice of tools and equipment in relation to the skills and techniques they will be using
  • select materials and components suitable for the task
  • explain their choice of materials and components according to functional properties and aesthetic qualities
  • order the main stages of making
  • produce appropriate lists of tools, equipment and materials that they need formulate step-by-step plans as a guide to making

Practical skills and techniques

Across KS1 pupils should:

  • follow procedures for safety and hygiene
  • use a range of materials and components, including construction materials and kits, textiles, food ingredients and mechanical components
  • measure, mark out, cut and shape materials and components • assemble, join and combine materials and components
  • use finishing techniques, including those from art and design

Across KS2 pupils should:

  • follow procedures for safety and hygiene
  • use a wider range of materials and components than KS1, including construction materials and kits, textiles, food ingredients, mechanical components and electrical components
  • measure, mark out, cut and shape materials and components with some accuracy
  •  assemble, join and combine materials and components with some accuracy
  • apply a range of finishing techniques, including those from art and design, with some accuracy

 

Across KS2 pupils should:

  • follow procedures for safety and hygiene
  • use a wider range of materials and components than KS1, including construction materials and kits, textiles, food ingredients, mechanical components and electrical components In early KS2 pupils should also:
  • measure, mark out, cut and shape materials and components with some accuracy
  •  assemble, join and combine materials and components with some accuracy
  • apply a range of finishing techniques, including those from art and design, with some accuracy
  • accurately measure, mark out, cut and shape materials and components
  • accurately assemble, join and combine materials and components
  • accurately apply a range of finishing techniques, including those from art and design
  •  use techniques that involve a number of steps
  • demonstrate resourcefulness when tackling practical problems

 

Evaluating:

 

Key Stage 1: Years 1 and 2

LKS2: Years 3 and 4

UKS2: Years 5 and 6

Own ideas and products

Across KS1 pupils should:

  • talk about their design ideas and what they are making
  • make simple judgements about their products and ideas against design criteria
  • suggest how their products could be improved

Across KS2 pupils should:

  • identify the strengths and areas for development in their ideas and products
  • consider the views of others, including intended users, to improve their work
  • refer to their design criteria as they design and make
  • use their design criteria to evaluate their completed products

 

Across KS2 pupils should:

  • identify the strengths and areas for development in their ideas and products
  • consider the views of others, including intended users, to improve their work
  • refer to their design criteria as they design and make
  • use their design criteria to evaluate their completed products
  • critically evaluate the quality of the design, manufacture and fitness for purpose of their products as they design and make
  • evaluate their ideas and products against their original design specification

Existing products

Across KS1 pupils should explore:

  • what products are
  • who products are for
  • what products are for
  • how products work
  • how products are used
  • where products might be used
  • what materials products are made from what they like and dislike about products

Across KS2 pupils should investigate and analyse:

  • how well products have been designed
  • how well products have been made
  • why materials have been chosen
  • what methods of construction have been used
  • how well products work
  • how well products achieve their purposes
  • how well products meet user needs and wants
  • who designed and made the products
  • where products were designed and made
  • when products were designed and made
  • whether products can be recycled or reused

Across KS2 pupils should investigate and analyse:

  • how well products have been designed
  • how well products have been made
  • why materials have been chosen
  • what methods of construction have been used
  • how well products work
  • how well products achieve their purposes
  • how well products meet user needs and wants
  • who designed and made the products
  • where products were designed and made
  • when products were designed and made
  • whether products can be recycled or reused
  • how much products cost to make
  • how innovative products are
  • how sustainable the materials in products are
  • what impact products have beyond their intended purpose

Key events and individuals

 

Across KS2 pupils should know:

  • about inventors, designers, engineers, chefs and manufacturers who have developed ground-breaking products

Across KS2 pupils should know:

  • about inventors, designers, engineers, chefs and manufacturers who have developed ground-breaking products

 

Technical Knowledge:

 

Key Stage 1: Years 1 and 2

LKS2: Years 3 and 4

UKS2: Years 5 and 6

Making products work

Across KS1 pupils should know:

  • about the simple working characteristics of materials and components
  • about the movement of simple mechanisms such as levers, sliders, wheels and axles
  • how freestanding structures can be made stronger, stiffer and more stable • that a 3-D textiles product can be assembled from two identical fabric shapes
  • that food ingredients should be combined according to their sensory characteristics
  • the correct technical vocabulary for the projects they are undertaking

Across KS2 pupils should know:

  • how to use learning from science to help design and make products that work
  • how to use learning from mathematics to help design and make products that work
  • that materials have both functional properties and aesthetic qualities
  • that materials can be combined and mixed to create more useful characteristics
  • that mechanical and electrical systems have an input, process and output
  • the correct technical vocabulary for the projects they are undertaking
  • how mechanical systems such as levers and linkages or pneumatic systems create movement
  • how simple electrical circuits and components can be used to create functional products
  • how to program a computer to control their products
  • how to make strong, stiff shell structures
  •  that a single fabric shape can be used to make a 3D textiles product
  • that food ingredients can be fresh, pre-cooked and processed

Across KS2 pupils should know:

  • how to use learning from science to help design and make products that work
  • how to use learning from mathematics to help design and make products that work
  • that materials have both functional properties and aesthetic qualities
  • that materials can be combined and mixed to create more useful characteristics
  • that mechanical and electrical systems have an input, process and output
  • the correct technical vocabulary for the projects they are undertaking
  • how mechanical systems such as levers and linkages or pneumatic systems create movement
  • how simple electrical circuits and components can be used to create functional products
  • how to program a computer to control their products
  • how to make strong, stiff shell structures
  •  that a single fabric shape can be used to make a 3D textiles product
  • that food ingredients can be fresh, pre-cooked and processed
  • how mechanical systems such as cams or pulleys or gears create movement
  • how more complex electrical circuits and components can be used to create functional products
  • how to program a computer to monitor changes in the environment and control their products
  • how to reinforce and strengthen a 3D framework
  • that a 3D textiles product can be made from a combination of fabric shapes
  • that a recipe can be adapted by adding or substituting one or more ingredients

 

 

Cooking and Nutrition:

 

Key Stage 1: Years 1 and 2

LKS2: Years 3 and 4

UKS2: Years 5 and 6

Where food comes from

Across KS1 pupils should know:

  • that all food comes from plants or animals
  • that food has to be farmed, grown elsewhere (e.g. home) or caught

Across KS2 pupils should know:

  • that food is grown (such as tomatoes, wheat and potatoes), reared (such as pigs, chickens and cattle) and caught (such as fish) in the UK, Europe and the wider world

 

Across KS2 pupils should know:

  • that food is grown (such as tomatoes, wheat and potatoes), reared (such as pigs, chickens and cattle) and caught (such as fish) in the UK, Europe and the wider world
  • that seasons may affect the food available
  • how food is processed into ingredients that can be eaten or used in cooking

Food Preparation, cooking and nutrition

Across KS1 pupils should know:

  • how to name and sort foods into the five groups in the ‘Eatwell plate’
  • that everyone should eat at least five portions of fruit and vegetables every day
  • how to prepare simple dishes safely and hygienically, without using a heat source
  • how to use techniques such as cutting, peeling and grating

Across KS2 pupils should know:

  •  how to prepare and cook a variety of predominantly savoury dishes safely and hygienically including, where appropriate, the use of a heat source
  • how to use a range of techniques such as peeling, chopping, slicing, grating, mixing, spreading, kneading and baking
  • that a healthy diet is made up from a variety and balance of different food and drink, as depicted in The Eatwell Guide
  • that to be active and healthy, food and drink are needed to provide energy for the body

 

Across KS2 pupils should know:

  •  how to prepare and cook a variety of predominantly savoury dishes safely and hygienically including, where appropriate, the use of a heat source
  • how to use a range of techniques such as peeling, chopping, slicing, grating, mixing, spreading, kneading and baking
  • that a healthy diet is made up from a variety and balance of different food and drink, as depicted in The Eatwell Guide
  • that to be active and healthy, food and drink are needed to provide energy for the body
  • that recipes can be adapted to change the appearance, taste, texture and aroma
  • that different food and drink contain different substances – nutrients, water and fibre – that are needed for health

 

D&T Curriculum Map

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

Reception

All about me

 

Festivals and Celebrations

We are explorers

Life Cycles

Animals

Traditional Tales

Y1

Mechanisms

Sliders and Levers

 

Project: Moving Picture

Mechanisms

Sliders and Levers

 

Project: Moving Christmas card

Structures

Freestanding structures

Project: structure (prop) from story book

Structures

Freestanding structures

Project: Model Playground

Food

Preparing fruit and vegetables

Project: Fruit salad

Food

Preparing fruit and vegetables

Project: Fruit smoothies

Y2

Mechanisms

Wheels and axles

 

Project: Fire engine (Great Fire of London)

Mechanisms

Wheels and axles

 

Project: Create an imaginary vehicle 

Textiles

Templates and joining techniques

Project: Finger puppet 

Textiles

Templates and joining techniques

Project: Glove puppet 

Food

Preparing fruit and vegetables

Project: Greek salad 

Food

Preparing fruit and vegetables

Project: Fruit jelly

Y3

Structures

Shell Structures

 

 

Project: desk tidy

Structures

Shell Structures using computer aided design 

Project: Gift box

Textiles

2D shape to £D product

 

Project: purse

Textiles

2D shape to £D product

 

Project: pencil case

Food

Healthy and varied diet

 

Project: wrap/ pita pocket

Food

Healthy and varied diet

 

Project: snack bar

Y4

Mechanical Systems

Levers and linkages

 

Project: story book 

Mechanical Systems

Levers and linkages

 

Project: Christmas card

Electrical systems

Simple circuits and switches

 

Project: Torch

Electrical systems

Simple programming and control

 

Project: Illuminated sign

Food

Healthy and varied diet

 

Project: pizza (using bread base)

Food

Healthy and varied diet

 

Project: fruit muffin

Y5

Structures

Frame structures

 

 

 

Project: Bird box/ feeder

Mechanical Systems

Cams

 

 

Project: Moving Toy

Electrical Systems

Complex switches and circuits (monitoring and control)

Project: Alarm

 

Electrical Systems

Complex switches and circuits

(monitoring and control)

Project: Electrical board game

Food

Celebrating culture and seasonality

 

 

Project: soup

Food

Celebrating culture and seasonality

 

 

Project: biscuit

 

Y6

Textiles

Combining different fabric shapes

 

Project: Mobile phone case 

Textiles

Combining different fabric shapes

 

Project: fabric advent calendar

Mechanical Systems

Pulleys

 

Project: sports car/ off road vehicle

Mechanical Systems

Gears

 

Project: fairground ride

Food

Celebrating culture and seasonality

 

Project: savoury scones

Food

Celebrating culture and seasonality

 

Project: pizza (making dough)

 

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